Advice is inspired by Robert Hoberman (private interaction). That it is apparently generally member of your own Jewish dialects away from xdating many other locations from the part too, including Aqra and you can Rawanduz.
Although not, contained in this dialect there clearly was a highly uncommon change of h so you’re able to h from the 3rd person only 1 possessive suffixes: resIh ‘his head’
Azerbaijan (Azer): The words of the Jews from Iranian Azerbaijan, also groups inside the Urmi, Salmas, Basqale, Mahabad, and you will Yuksekova. Information is out-of Garbell (1965).
Halabja (Hala): The words of Jews off Halabja to your Iran-Iraq edging. This is extremely around the Jewish dialects of your most other locations of the region, together with Saqqiz, Suleimaniya, Sanandaj, Baneh, and you will Panjwin. Suggestions is inspired by my notes.
We will compare these types of dialects pertaining to twenty-four phonological, morphological, morpho-lexical, and you may lexical conditions. Following Hetzron (1976, 98), we have chosen just designs due to the fact criteria to have category. I’ve chose a disproportionate level of morphological standards, and now we shall let them have unique pounds, once more adopting the Hetzron, but other mutual innovations could be considered as really.
Notice as well as the much harder conservation and also installation away from within the Koy Sanjaq stated by the Hoberman (1985)
Even as we examine the brand new languages away from NENA we will try to determine the fresh the quantity that the fresh dialects share a definite development hence differs from Turoyo and you can Mandaic. Meanwhile, we shall discover packages away from isoglosses within NENA.
(1) Stress is generally penultimate in most brand new NA dialects, in addition to Turoyo and you can Mandaic yet not throughout the three easternmost Jewish languages, Jewish Azerbaijani, Koy Sanjaq, and you may Halabja, which will fret the past syllable. Such dialects hunt, in this way, like in more (Garbell 1965), to display an abnormally strong determine regarding Kurdish.
(2) All NENA languages provides combined h and you may x. Inside the Hertevin as a result, h, and almost everywhere more it is x: Hertevin haye ‘life’ (Jastrow 1988, 189) and you may dmehli ‘I slept’ (Jastrow 1988, 18), Tkhuma xa:[Theta]good ‘new’, Jilu ptIxli ‘I opened’ (Fox 1992, 45), and +damxotu ‘you sleep’ (Fox 1992, 55).(4)
Both Turoyo and Mandaic preserve independent h and you can x. Certain NENA languages features reintroduced h as a credit away from Kurdish otherwise Arabic otherwise of Classical Syriac otherwise Hebrew.(5) However, the latest passed on code consistently suggests x. Like, for the Tisqopa you will find borrowed Arabic terms and conditions, such as for instance sahabi ‘friend’, having h, but handed down terms instance laxma ‘bread’ continuously tell you x. (6)
(3) The NENA languages except Hertevin and you may Zakho have lost really instances away from inherited. Such as for example, in Aradhin we find arba ‘four’, upra ‘earth’ add up to Syriac arb good and afra. When you look at the Hertevin and in Zakho, passed on are regularly ?: Hertevin thus?an excellent ‘seven’ (Jastrow 1988, 99), Zakho sme?la ‘she heard’ (Meehan and Alon 1979, 189). In many other languages some are kept just like the ?, and you will, in the other people, is finished completely. Certain languages keeps reintroduced lent away from Arabic or Kurdish. Instance, Halabja possess ayza ‘good’.
(4) Into the prior to dialects away from Aramaic, as in Tiberian Hebrew, t became [Theta] shortly after a vowel. Which alternation has been lexicalized during the NENA, that have either t or [Theta] spreading through whole paradigms, if or not preceded of the a vowel or perhaps not. Particularly, during the Aradhin brand new verb ‘come’ is now offering [Theta] throughout: a[Theta]ya ‘it (fem.) comes’, also [Theta]e:los angeles ‘she came’ (Krotkoff 1982, 70, 74). After that, in some languages the fresh new phoneme [Theta] keeps gone through even more transform. In some languages [Theta] has actually blended to t, and in other people it is s or even l.(7) In one single dialect, Jilu, it has become h following been removed except within start of a term. The three easternmost Jewish dialects share the brand new stunning change from [Theta] to 1. The results of these alter is visible on word ‘house’ which appears in various languages as the getting:[Theta]an excellent (Tkhuma), biya (Jilu), beta (Hertevin), bela (Halabja), and you may besa (Sanandaj Christian).